What is Scoliosis?

Scoliosis is a problem with the curve in your spine. Some curves in your spine are normal. But a few people have spines that make a large curve from side to side in the shape of the letter “S” or the letter “C.” If this curve is severe, it can cause pain and make breathing difficult.

The good news is that most cases of scoliosis are mild. If found early, they can usually be prevented from getting worse.

Scoliosis Bending Down

Scoliosis

What causes scoliosis?

Scoliosis usually starts in childhood. Scoliosis that is severe enough to need treatment is most common in girls.

A curve in the spine may get worse as your child grows, so it is important to find any problem early.

In most cases, the cause of scoliosis is not known. This is called idiopathic scoliosis. It develops mostly in children and teens and appears to be related to several things, including genetics, as it often runs in families.

There are two types of scoliosis: nonstructural and structural.

Nonstructural (functional) scoliosis

Nonstructural (functional) scoliosis involves a curve in the spine, without rotation, that is reversible because it is caused by a condition such as:

  • Pain or a muscle spasm.
  • A difference in leg length.

Structural scoliosis

Structural scoliosis involves a curve in the spine, with rotation, that is irreversible and is usually caused by an unknown factor (idiopathic) or a disease or condition such as:

  • Disorders that were present at birth (congenital), such as spina bifida, in which the spinal canal does not close properly; or a disorder that affects the formation of bones. These curves can be harder to correct. They often get worse as the child grows, especially during the teen years.
  • Nerve or muscle disorders, such as cerebral palsy, Marfan’s syndrome, or muscular dystrophy.
  • Injuries.
  • Infections.
  • Tumors.

In adults, scoliosis may result from changes in the spine due to aging (degenerative changes). These degenerative changes may be caused by osteoarthritis.

What are the symptoms?

Scoliosis most often causes no symptoms in your child until the spinal curve becomes large. You might notice these early signs:

  • Your child has one shoulder or hip that looks higher than the other.
  • Your child’s head does not look centered over the body.
  • Your child has one shoulder blade that sticks out more than the other.
  • Your child’s waistline is flat on one side, or the ribs look higher on one side when your child bends forward at the waist.

In adults, scoliosis may cause back pain and trouble breathing.

How is scoliosis diagnosed?

The doctor will check to see if your child’s back or ribs are even. If the doctor finds that one side is higher than the other, your child may need an X-ray so the spinal curve can be measured.

Scoliosis is most serious in young children who are still growing. A curve in the spine may get worse as your child grows. So many experts believe screening your child for scoliosis is important so that any curve in the spine can be found early and watched closely.

How is Scoliosis treated?

Mild cases of scoliosis usually do not need treatment. Your doctor will check the curve of your child’s spine every 4 to 6 months. If the curve gets worse, your child may need to wear a brace until he or she has finished growing. In severe cases, or if bracing doesn’t help, your child may need to have surgery.

Scoliosis and its treatment can be a severe strain on your child. Wearing a brace can feel and look odd. It also limits your child’s activity. Your child needs your support and understanding to get through treatments successfully.

What increases the risk of scoliosis?

Your child may be more likely to have scoliosis if someone in your family has had it and if your child is a girl. Other things that increase the chance of scoliosis include:

  • One of the bones in your child’s spine has moved forward out of place compared to the rest of the spine.
  • Your child’s arms or legs are missing or are abnormally short.
  • Your child has other problems with tissue growth that happened before birth.

When To Call a Doctor

Call your doctor to have your child evaluated for scoliosis if:

  • You observe a curve in your child’s spine.
  • You notice that something about your child’s posture looks unusual, such as ribs that stick out, one shoulder that is higher than the other, one hip that is higher than the other, or an uneven waistline.
  • You observe that your child’s clothes don’t fit properly or that his or her hems don’t hang evenly.
  • A school screening program recommends that your child see a doctor.

 Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hours) to make an appointment to see our orthopaedic specialist regarding your Scoliosis today.