Brief Outline of Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper’s Knee)

Activities that require repetitive jumping like basketball or volleyball can lead to tendinitis in the patellar (tendon) ligament, also referred to as jumper’s knee. The force placed on the tendon over time can lead to inflammation and pain. The pain is generally felt just below the knee cap.

Anatomy and Physiology of Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper’s Knee)

Patellar tendinitis affects the teno-osseous junctions of the quadriceps tendon as it attaches o the superior pole (extremity) of the patella, and the patellar (tendon) ligament as it attaches the inferior pole of the patella and the tibial tuberosity. Pain is concentrated on the patellar (tendon) ligament, but can also occur at the insertion of the patellar (tendon) ligament into the tibial tuberosity. The patellar (tendon) ligament is involved in extending the lower leg, but is also the first area to experience shock when landing from a jump. It is forced to stretch as the quadriceps to contracts to slow down the flexion of the knee. This repetitive stress can lead to minor trauma in the tendon, which will lead to inflammation. Repetitive flexing and extending of the knee also places stress on this tendon if the tendon does not travel in the required path.

Cause of Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper’s Knee)

Repetitive jumping and landing activities. Running and kicking activities. Untreated minor injury to the patellar tendon.

Signs and Symptoms of Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper’s Knee)

Pain and inflammation of the patellar tendon, especially from repetitive or eccentric knee extension activity or kneeling. Swelling and tenderness around the tendon.

Complications if Left Patellar Tendinitis (Jumper’s Knee) Unattended

As with most tendinitis, inflammation that is left untreated will cause additional irritation, which causes more inflammation, setting up a vicious cycle. This can eventually lead to a rupture of the tendon. Damage to surrounding tissue may also occur.

Call (+65)  6471 2674 to fix an appointment to see our orthopaedic specialist regarding patellar tendinitis (jumper’s knee) today.

Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles Tendinitis Video

Brief Outline of Achilles Tendinitis

Inflammation of the Achilles tendon can be very painful, especially since all of the body’s weight is supported by this structure and the shoe often presses against this area. Repetitive stress to the tendon can lead to inflammation that causes additional irritation, causing more inflammation. Activities such as basketball, running, volleyball, and other running and jumping sports can lead to Achilles tendinitis.

Anatomy and Physiology of Achilles Tendinitis

The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the human body, being approximately 15 cm long, and 2 cm thick. It originated from the musculo-tendinous junction of the calf muscles and inserts into the posterior aspect of the calcaneus. The tendon is separated from the calcaneus by the retrocalcaneal bursa, and from the skin by the subcutaneous calcaneal bursa. The tendon crosses the back of the heel, which means it rides over the bone as the muscle contracts and stretches. Repetitive contraction of the muscles in the calf and improper footwear or excessive pronation of the feet can lead to inflammation in the tendon.

Achilles Tendinitis

Right Foot Tendon is Thicker than Left Foot Tendon

Cause of Achilles Tendinitis

Repetitive stress from running and jumping activities. Improper footwear or awkward landing pattern of the foot during running. Untreated injuries to the calf or Achilles tendon.

Signs and Symptoms of Achilles Tendinitis

Pain and tenderness in the tendon. Swelling may be present. Contraction of the calf muscle causes pain; running and jumping may be difficult.

Complications If Left Achilles Tendinitis Unattended

Inflammation in the tendon can lead to deterioration of the tendon and eventual rupture if left untreated. Inflammation may lead to tightening of the tendon and attached muscle, which could lead to tearing.

Immediate Treatment for Achilles Tendinitis

Rest, reducing or discontinuing the offending activity. Ice. Anti-inflammatory medication. Shockwave therapy to promote blood flow and healing.

Rehabilitation and Prevention of Achilles Tendinitis

After a period of rest, usually lasting 5-10 days, gentle stretching and strengthening exercises can be initiated. Heat may be used on the tendon before activity to warm the tendon properly. Adequate warm-up, along with strengthening and stretching exercises for the calves, will help prevent tendinitis of the Achilles tendon.

Long-term Prognosis for Achilles Tendinitis

Tendinitis seldom has lingering effects if treated properly. Tendinitis may take from five days to several weeks to heal, but rarely needs surgery to repair it.

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Posterior Tibial Tendon

Brief Outline of Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

Pain along the medial (inner) side of the lower leg, ankle, and foot may be the result of posterior tibial tendinitis. The posterior tibial tendon helps hold the longitudinal arch of the foot, which means there is a level of tension and friction in the tendon. If the arch falls, the stress on the tendon increase. This can occur with poor running mechanics, improper footwear, or untreated injuries.

Anatomy and Physiology for Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

The posterior tibial tendon runs from the calf muscle behind the medial malleolus (the bony prominence) of the ankle, to the navicular bone in the arch of the foot. This tendon supports the arch and aids in inversion of the foot. If the navicular moves out of place, it causes stress and irritation to the tendon. This irritation over time becomes tendinitis, inflammation of the tendon.

Posterior Tibial TendonPosterior Tibial Tendon Pain

Cause of Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

Improper running mechanics. Improper footwear. Prior  injury to the medial side of the ankle.

Signs and Symptoms of Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

Pain and tenderness over the inner side of the shin, ankle, and foot. Pain when walking or running. Some swelling may be noted over the tendon.

Complications if Left Posterior Tibial Tendinitis Unattended

If left unattended, this condition can lead to a fallen arch or a complete rupture of the tendon. The pain may cause a change in footfall during running leading to injuries in other structures of the foot and ankle.

Immediate Treatment for Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

R.I.C.E. Anti-inflammatory medication.

Rehabilitation and Prevention for Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

After pain subsides, it is important to stretch and strengthen the calf muscles to support the tendon and speed recovery. Arch supports may be required until the tendon heals and the muscles are strengthened. Gradual reintroduction into activity is important and proper warm-ups will help prevent a recurrence of the injury. Proper footwear and corrections of any mechanical inefficiency will also help prevent this injury.

Long-term Prognosis for Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

Proper treatment should lead to a complete recovery. The longer the condition exists before treatment the longer recovery will take.

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What is calcific tendinitis?

Calcific tendinitis occurs when calcium deposits builds up in the tendons. Calcific tendinitis most often occurs in the shoulders. Calcific tendinitis can happen in elbows, wrists, hands, hips, knees or feet as well. The age group of people who gets calcific tendinitis are between 30 and 50 years old. Calcific tendinitis happens more in women than men.

Calcific Tendonitis

What causes calcific tendinitis?

Calcific tendinitis is a process whereby calcium deposits are buildup and cause a chemical reaction with other tissues in the tendon to cause pain. In the shoulder, the calcium deposits is usually accumulated inside the rotator cuff.

What are the symptoms of a calcific tendinitis?

You may experience pain and stiffness that often come and goes and usually lasts for 1 to 2 months. You may find it difficult to sleep at night due to the pain.

How is calcific tendinitis diagnosed?

Your doctor will physically examine your affected area. An X-ray may ordered to look for the calcium deposits. Additional investigation like Ultrasound or MRI may be required to see if there are any tears to the tendons and other soft tissues.

How is calcific tendinitis treated?

Treatment to calcific tendinitis includes rest, ice and medicines which are simple home remedy.

If you are in extreme pain, you may want to seek medical attention.

Treatments at clinical level includes:

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