Sprains and strains are a common type of injury that affect muscles and ligaments.

Ligaments are strong bands of tissue around joints that connect one bone to another. They help to keep bones together and stable.

Symptoms of sprains and strains include:

  • pain
  • swelling and inflammation
  • loss of movement in the affected body part


A sprain occurs when one or more of your ligaments have been stretched, twisted or torn, usually as a result of excessive force being applied to a joint. The most common locations for a sprain to occur are:

  • the knee – which can become strained when a person turns quickly during physical activities
  • the ankle – which can become strained when walking or running on an uneven surface
  • the wrist – which can become strained when a person falls onto their hand
  • the thumb – which can become strained during repetitive physical activity (such as playing a racquet sport) or a fall


A strain occurs when the muscle fibres stretch or tear. They usually occur when the muscle has been stretched beyond its limits or it has been forced to contract (shorten) too quickly.

Strains can develop as the result of an accident, or during physical activities, such as running or playing football.

The most common types of strains are:

  • hamstring strains – the hamstrings are muscles that run down the back of the leg and are connected to the hip and knee joints
  • gastrocnemius and soleus strains – the gastrocnemius and soleus are the medical name for the muscles of the calf
  • quadriceps strains – the quadriceps are muscles located at the front of the thigh
  • lumbar strains – the lumbar muscles are found in the lower back

Treating a sprain or strain

Most sprains and strains can usually be treated with self-care techniques, such as PRICE therapy – protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation.

Generally, you should keep moving a sprained joint but immobilise a sprained muscle. You should see a doctor if you are in severe pain, or if the injury is not improving or is getting worse.

Most people will be able to resume normal activities within six to eight weeks. Severe muscle strains may take longer.

Preventing sprains and strains

There are a number of ways you can help to prevent sprains and strains, including:

  • using the correct footwear for activities
  • warming up properly before exercise
  • stretching or ‘warming down’ after exercise
  • doing regular strengthening and conditioning exercises

How common are they?

Sprains and strains are very common.

For example, ankle sprain is the most common type of sprain.

And it is estimated that 90% of professional footballers will experience at least one muscle strain during the course of a football season.

Call us today for an appointment to see our specialist to treat sprains and strains.

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Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and teens are less common than in adults. But they do occur, especially in teens. An injury that hasn’t been treated (or one in which the treatment didn’t work) can lead to future knee problems. The knee may become more and more unstable. Over time, osteoarthritis may develop.

Trying rehab and other treatments

A child with an ACL injury can sometimes be treated without surgery to avoid damage to the child’s still-developing bones. Your child can try rehab exercises, wearing a brace, and avoiding activities that require jumping or twisting.

Studies suggest that the more active a child is, the less likely these treatments will work and the more likely surgery will be needed in the future.

An avulsion fracture is more common in young children. This happens when the ligament and a piece of bone separate from the rest of the bone. It can often be treated with a cast. But it sometimes needs surgery.

Having the ACL surgery

You may consider surgery if:

  • The knee is very unstable doing simple daily activities.
  • The knee can’t be made stable with other methods.
  • The child has both an ACL injury and a meniscus tear.
  • The child is a serious athlete in sports that require running, jumping, and stopping quickly.

Rest after surgery and a proper rehab program are very important.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) for an appointment with our orthopaedic surgeon regarding the ACL injuries today.

Brief Outline of ACL Injury

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the four ligaments of the knee and it holds the knee together from the front. An ACL injury commonly happens in sports where there are a lot of direction changes and possible impacts. Football, basketball, and other fast moving games that require quick changes often result in ACL sprains. The most common mechanism for this injury is when the knee rotates while the foot is planted. Sharp pain at the time of the injury, accompanied by swelling in the knee joint, may be a sign of an ACL tear. This can range from minor tearing of a few fibres to a complete tear. The ACL can also be torn as the result of a hard blow to the knee; usually other ligaments and the meniscus are involved as well.

Cause of ACL Injury

Forceful twisting of the knee when the foot is planted. Occasionally a forceful blow to the knee, especially if the foot is fixed as well.

Signs and Symptoms of ACL Injury

Pain immediately after injury that may go away later. Swelling in the knee joint. Instability in the knee, especially with the tibia.

Complications if Left ACL Injury Unattended

If left unattended this injury may not heal properly. The instability in the joint could result in injury of other ligaments. Chronic pain and instability could lead to future limitations.

Treatment for ACL Injury

ACL sprains that involve a complete tear usually require surgery, ACL Reconstruction using Arthroscopy method, to reattach the ligament. Minor sprains can often be healed completely without surgery.

Rehabilitation and Prevention for ACL Injury

Once stability and strength return and pain subsides, activities such as stationary cycling can be gradually introduced. Range of motion and strengthening exercises are an important part of rehabilitation. Swimming and other exercises that are non-weight bearing may be used until the strength returns to normal. Strengthening the muscles of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and calves will help to protect the ACL. Proper conditioning before beginning high impact activities will also provide protection.

Call Now (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hours) to see our knee specialist today regarding your ACL injury.

Knee Anatomy

The incidence of sports-related injuries has been increasing steadily over the recent years. It is estimated that doctors in the Unites States treat 3.5 million sports injuries in a year and in Singapore, over 16,000 sports injuries occur every year.

Sports  injuries impact the sufferer on two fronts. In terms of sporting activity, the individual is unable to participate during the recovery phase. After recovery, the individual may not be able to return to sport at pre-injury level due to residual impairment of function. With respect to life outside of sport, time may have to be taken off work or school, depending on the severity of the injury. Difficulties may also be experienced in the performance of certain aspects of an individual’s job.

Sports injuries can be divided into acute sports injuries and overuse sports injuries. Acute sports injuries are associated, most commonly, with contact sports (eg. football or basketball) or sports involving sudden twisting or change in direction (racket sports). The onset of symptoms is sudden and treatment often involved surgery. Overuse sports injuries occur with sports of repetition (eg. running) where the same action is repeated many times over. The onset of symptoms is gradual and treatment usually involves physiotherapy and rehabilitation. In this article, we will focus on acute sports injuries of the knee.


Knee Anatomy
Sports Injuries to Knee Ligament

The primary function of ligaments is to keep movement of the knee within the desired plane and within normal limits. Disruption of any of the knee ligaments allows abnormal knee movement. This, in turn, causes damage to other structures within the knee. The usual targets of this secondary damage are cartilage and the menisci.

There are four main knee ligaments and the most commonly damaged ligament is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

Sports injuries involving the ACL are most often sustained with a twisting or hyperextension injury. With an ACL tear, immediate joint swelling is seen from bleeding within the knee. There will, of course, be pain. Some patients may experience a locked knee. In this condition, a fragment of the torn ligament gets trapped in the joint and the joint cannot be fully extended because of the mechanical obstruction. At the time of injury, the meniscus may also be damaged.

Immediate treatment with RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation) therapy is instituted and crutches can be used if necessary. With symptoms of immediate joint swelling and pain after an injury, an early consultation with a doctor is prudent to ensure that there isn’t a fracture. Early rehabilitation is started to allow weight-bearing and regain range of motion of the knee. Further rehabilitation involves the strengthening and coordination / balance training. The most common complaint of a patient with an ACL tear is an unstable knee, which buckles with rapid change in the direction of walking or running. This prevents an individual from returning to sports and risks further damage to the knee.

Because of its position within the knee joint, ACL tears do not have the ability to heal. Once the ACL is torn, the torn ends remain separate and do not heal, even if stitched together. The objective of the surgery for an ACL tear is not to repair the damage but to replace the ACL. This is referred to as reconstruction of the ACL. Reconstruction of the ACL is performed using the patient’s own tissue to replace the torn ligament. The most common tissue used are the patella tendon (tendon connecting the kneecap to the shin bone) and hamstring tendons (tendons behind the knee). The current standard of treatment of an ACL reconstruction is with arthroscopic (keyhole) surgery.

The benefits of reconstructing a torn ACL are reducing the chances of abnormal twisting of the knee and reducing the risk of secondary damage to the menisci and joint cartilage, thus reducing the likelihood of knee arthritis. This procedure also allows the patient to return to sports requiring twisting.

It is important to seek medical attention at the early stages of the injury to reduce the change of secondary damage.

Sports Injuries to Meniscus

A meniscus is a piece of specialist cartilage shaped like the letter “C”. There are two menisci in each knee. They serve to absorb shock transmitted through the knee and to protect more fragile cartilage covering the surfaces of the knee joint.

A meniscus can be torn with a twisting or impact injury. There is associated knee swelling, which may be of a more gradual nature than in an ACL tear, together with pain. There may also be locking of the knee.

Meniscus Tear

Surgery for a meniscus tear is performed arthroscopically (keyhole surgery). During the procedure, the meniscus is either repaired or debrided (torn fragments removed and remaining meniscus smoothed down). The decision whether to repair or debride is made based on the location, size and configuration of the tear.

The aim of the meniscal surgery is to obtain a stable meniscus, which will not displace into the joint to cause locking. To restore the normal configuration or smoothen out the damaged surfaces also reduces the risk of further damage and consequent arthritis.

Although the occurrence of acute sports injury of the knee is increasing, treatment outcomes are good and many patients do return to playing their chose sport. It is important to seek medical attention at the early stages of the injury to reduce the chance of secondary damage. With early treatment and arthroscopic (minimally-invasive, keyhole) surgery, when needed, the down-time from sports and daily activities can be minimised.


  • Seek early medical attention after an acute sports injury of the knee (especially if associated with swelling)


  • Neglect a locked knee. This requires urgent attention to “unlock” it. Walking on a locked knee will result in irreversible cartilage damage of the knee.
  • Ignore an unstable knee. Frequent twisting of an unstable knee may cause meniscal or cartilage injuries.

Call +65 64712674 for an appointment to see Dr. Kevin Yip today for your knee or sports injuries.