Knee Anatomy

Brief outline of medial collateral ligament (MCL) rupture

medial collateral ligament (MCL) sprain involves tearing or stretching of this ligament of the knee. The MCL is one of the most common structures of the knee to be injured. This ligament is designed to hold the knee joint together on the medial (inside) surface. Force applied to the outside of the knee (as in football tackle) causes the inside of the knee to open, stretching the MCL. The extent of the stretch determines whether the ligament simple stretches, tear partially, or tears completely.

Knee Anatomy
Knee Anatomy

Cause of medial collateral ligament (MCL) rupture

Force applied to the lateral side (outside) of the knee joint.

Signs and symptoms of medial collateral ligament (MCL) rupture

Pain over the medial portion of the knee. Swelling and tenderness. Instability in the knee and pain with weight bearing.

Complications if left medial collateral ligament (MCL) rupture unattended

The ligament, in rare cases, may repair itself if left unattended, but the injury could lead to a more severe sprain. The pain in the knee an instability of the joint may not go away. Continued activity on the injured knee could lead to injuries of the other ligaments, due to the instability.

Joint Pain

Brief outline of knee plica (Synovial plica)

The plica is a thin fibrous membrane that is left over from the fetal knee development. This plica once divided the knee into three separate compartments during fetal development but then became a part of the knee structure as the compartments became one protective cavity. When friction or a pinching between the femur and patella occurs, the plica may become inflamed, causing it to thicken, which in turn causes more friction, creating a vicious cycle. This is common when the knee is flexed and placed under stress.

Knee Plica

Cause of knee plica (Synovial plica)

Trauma to the flexed knee. Repetitive stress, especially with medial weight bearing such as in cycling.

Signs and symptoms of knee plica (Synovial plica)

Pain. Tenderness over the plica.

Complications if left knee plica (Synovial plica) unattended

The plica will continue to become inflamed and limit flexion activity in the knee if the condition is left unattended. The pain may also cause a change in gait or running form that could lead to other overuse injuries.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 to make an appointment to treat knee plica today.

Brief Outline of Knee Joint Dislocation

knee joint dislocation is a serious injury and quite often involves damage to a number of the structures of the knee, including ligaments, tendons, and menisci. There is also a chance that damage will occur to the vascular structures around the knee, which may require emergency surgery. Dislocation occurs when the top of the tibia (shin bone) is completely dislodged from the end of the femur (thigh bone). A dislocation of the knee joint is most commonly caused by a high impact injury, such as an automobile accident or a severe fall.

Cause of Knee Joint Dislocation

High impact to the knee or leg. Forceful twisting of the knee.

Complications if left Knee Joint Dislocation unattended

Dislocation of the knee joint causes tearing of the ligaments that hold the joint together. Dislocation results in gross instability and the knee joint becoming considerably more prone to successive dislocations and other injuries.

Immediate Treatment for Knee Joint Dislocation

Ice an immobilisation. Seek medical attention immediately.

Rehabilitation and prevention for Knee Joint Dislocation

During rehabilitation, activities that do not aggravate the injury should be sought, such as swimming and cycling instead of weight-bearing activities like running and walking. Stengthening the muscles around the knee will help to provide support. A knee brace may also be used to provide extra support when initially returning to activity.

Long-term prognosis and surgery for Knee Joint Dislocation

Even if the knee joint relocates without treatment, which is rare, there will still be significant damage to the soft tissues around the joint. In most cases the knee joint will need to be relocated by a physician or medical professional, and as damage to the soft tissues is always present with a knee dislocation, further surgery may be required to fix the soft tissue damage. Extensive rehabilitation is usually required after surgery.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to make an appointment to treat knee joint dislocation today.

Chondromalacia Patella

Brief outline of chondromalacia patellae (runner’s knee)

The underside of the patella is protected by cartilage. Chondromalacia patellae occurs when this cartilage becomes damaged and softens. Softening and degeneration of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap in athletes is usually a result of overuse, trauma, or abnormal forces on the knee. In older adults it can be a result of degenerative arthritis. Pain under the kneecap and a grating sensation when the knee is extended are possible signs of this condition.

Chondromalacia Patella

Cause of chondromalacia patellae (runner’s knee)

Repetitive micro-trauma to the cartilage through overuse conditions. Misalignment of the kneecap. Previous fracture or dislocation of the kneecap.

Signs and symptoms of chondromalacia patellae (runner’s knee)

Pain that worsens after sitting for prolonged periods or when using stairs or rising from a seated position. Tenderness over the kneecap. Grating or grinding sensation when the knee is extended.

Complications if left chondromalacia patellae (runner’s knee) unattended

Cartilage that degenerates and becomes rough can cause scarring in the bone surface that it rubs against. This in turn causes more inflammation. Cartilage can also be torn when it is rough, leading to loose bodies in the joint.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 to make an appointment to see our knee specialist regarding your chondromalacia patellae (runner’s knee) today.

Knee Bursitis Pes Anserin

Brief outline of knee bursitis

Knee Bursitis can be a painful condition, especially when located in the weight-bearing knee joint. The job of the bursa is to cushion and lubricate the joint, so if it becomes inflamed, pain will occur in most weight-bearing and flexion or extension activities. With three major bursae surrounding the knee there are many chances to injure one of them. The three major bursae of the knee are the prepatellar bursa, the infrapatellar bursa. and the anserine bursa.

Knee Bursitis Pes Anserin

Cause of Knee Bursitis

Repetitive pressure or trauma to the bursa. Repetitive friction between the bursa and tendon or bone.

Signs and Symptoms of Knee Bursitis

Pain and tenderness. Mild swelling, due to release of fluid in the bursal sac. Pain and stiffness when kneeling or when walking down stairs.

Complications if left knee bursitis unattended

The bursa is a fluid-filled sac that is used to lubricate and cushion the joint; if it is allowed to rupture and release the fluid, the natural cushioning will be lost. The build-up of fluid in the joint will cause loss of mobility in the joint as well.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 to make an appointment to see our knee specialist regarding your knee bursitis today.