A harmless but painful bony enlargement on the outer posterior heel is called a Haglund’s deformity, named for the doctor who first described it. This condition is commonly referred to as a “pump bump”, because women’s pump-style shoes, with rigid heel counters, contribute to its symptoms. Given this common name, it isn’t surprising that Haglund’s deformity occurs most frequently in women who spend a lot of time wearing dressing shoes

Haglund's Deformity

What Causes Haglund’s Deformity?

Most people with Haglund’s deformity have inherited a foot structure with this bony enlargement present at birth. With pressure and rubbing on the heel over time, a bursa forms and becomes inflamed and painful (bursitis). High-arched feet, in particular, tend to supinate when walking (inward movement of the heel causing a person to walk on the outside of the heel), causing the back of the heel to rub repetitively against the shoe’s heel counter. A tight or shortened Achilles tendon also contributes to the condition by compressing another bursa (the retrocalcaneal bursa, which everybody has) against the heel bone.

Symptoms of Haglund’s Deformity

Symptoms of Haglund’s deformity include pain, redness, and swelling at the back of the heel. Often, a callus also develops over the affected area.

Treatment of Haglund’s Deformity

Treatment of Haglud’s deformity begins with

If the above conservative treatments are not helpful, you may want to consider surgery. The procedure usually involves removing both the prominent bony enlargement on the back of the heel bone and the inflamed bursa.

Please call +65 64712674 for an appointment for treating Haglund’s deformity.

Foot drop is the inability to lift the foot and toes properly when walking. It is caused by weakness or paralysis of the muscles that lift the foot.

People with foot drop tend to scuff their toes along the ground, so they may lift their foot higher than usual when walking to prevent this.

Foot drop is often linked to damage or disease of the brain or spinal cord, although it may also result from injury to the nerves in the leg.

If foot drop is caused by an injury or nerve damage, recovery is often possible. However, if it’s caused by a progressive neurological condition such as multiple sclerosis, foot drop will probably be a lifelong symptom to manage.

Conditions that cause foot drop

The condition causing foot drop can be temporary or permanent. Possible causes include:

  • spinal muscular atrophy
  • spinal stenosis
  • acquired peripheral neuropathy
  • damage to the nerve that passes below the knee

Managing foot drop Without Surgery

If you have foot drop, you may find it hard to clear the affected foot from the ground. This means you are more at risk of falls and injury.

Generally, making small changes in your home, such as using non-slip rugs and mats and removing clutter, can make a big difference in helping to prevent falls. Read more about preventing falls.

There are also measures you can take to stabilise the foot and improve your walking ability. These include:

  • having physiotherapy to strengthen the foot and lower leg muscles
  • wearing an ankle-foot orthosis (lower leg brace) and shoe insert
  • using an electrical stimulation device – although this is only suitable for use if the nerves controlling muscle movement are not affected

Surgery to treat foot drop

Surgery may be considered for those with permanent loss of movement from muscle paralysis. This usually involves transferring a tendon from the stronger leg muscles to the muscle that should be pulling the ankle upwards.

In rare cases, the bones of the ankle joint may be fused to stabilise the ankle.

If you are considering this form of surgery, speak to an orthopaedic specialist about what is involved and the pros and cons of the treatment.

Call us today for an appointment to see our specialist to treat foot drop.

+65 64712674 Appointment Line is open 24 Hours.

Tur Toe

Brief Outline of Turf Toe

Tur Toe

Pain at the base of the big toe may be a result of turf toe. Athletes who jam their toe or repetitively push off when running or jumping are susceptible. Also caused by hyperextending the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe. The name turf toe comes from the fact that this injury is common among athletes who play on artificial turf.

Anatomy and physiology

Turf toe develops at the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe. The capsule that covers this joint is torn, leading to instability and pain. This can lead to dislocations, cartilage wear and eventually arthritis. The tendons that cross the joint can become involved as well. Jamming the toe, or pushing off when running or jumping puts stress on the capsule and can lead to tearing.

Cause of Injury

Jamming the toe. Repetitive pushing off the toe, especially on a harder surface such as artificial turf.

Signs and symptoms

Pain at the base of the toe. Some swelling may be noted in the joint. Pain increases when pushing off with the toe.

Complications if left unattended

Turf toe can lead to chronic pain and the inability to run or jump. When left unattended, turf toe can lead to other conditions such as toe dislocations and arthritis.


  • Rest
  • Ice
  • Anti-inflammatory medication
  • Lubricant injection to the joint

Rehabilitation and prevention

As the pain subsides, it is important to work on the strength and flexibility of the toes. Adjusting the way the pressure is applied to the foot when pushing off will also help to correct the conditions(s) that caused the turf toe. Alternating workouts from hard to softer surfaces will help prevent the development of this condition. Special inserts, which support the toe may be used when returning to activity. A gradual return to full activity is important.

Long-term prognosis

Turf toe does have a tendency to return when working out on the same surface. In most cases, pain will subside and normal function will return. In very rare cases, surgery is required to alleviate the symptoms.

Call (+65) 64712 674 (24 Hour) to make an appointment with our doctor to treat turf toe today.

Brief Outline of Stress Fracture to the Foot

Stress fractures in the foot are usually a result of repetitive impact to the bones of the feet. Running or jumping on hard surfaces, changing the duration or distance of workouts too quickly, or fatigued muscles that can no longer absorb shock can lead to small cracks in the bone. The small cracks accumulate and become a stress fracture.

Anatomy and physiology

A stress fracture can occur in any of the bones of the foot but are generally seen in the metatarsals. The heel bone, or calcaneus, can also become fractured with improper footwear or as the result of an old injury that has gone untreated. The bones subjected to repetitive trauma develop minor cracks and then these cracks build on each other leading to a stress fracture. A weak point in the bone from a previous injury or due to bone rebuilding can lead to stress fractures under normal stress conditions.

Cause of Stress Fracture to the Foot

Repetitive trauma to the bones of the foot. Weakened area of bone due to previous injury or other condition. Muscle fatigue, making the muscles ineffective shock absorbers.

Signs and symptoms

Pain at the site of the fracture. Pain with weight bearing, with inability to walk in severe cases. Swelling may be noted over the fracture site. Some loss of foot function may be noted.

Complications if left unattended

More serious stress fracture including a complete break in the bone may occur if left unattended. Swelling and inflammation may cause blood flow and nerve problems in the foot. Pain may increase to the point of disability and inability to walk.


  • R.I.C.E
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Observe and monitor
  • See a doctor if not better

Rehabilitation and prevention

Strengthening of the muscles that support the foot will help to lessen the impact on the foot, with stronger muscles absorbing more shock. A gradual start to activity after the injury has healed is important to prevent recurrence. Proper footwear, correct warm-up techniques, avoiding hard running surfaces and a diet with calcium-rich foods will help prevent stress fractures in the foot.

Long-term prognosis

Stress fractures will usually heal completely and have no lingering effects if rest and rehabilitation are used. The fracture site should heal to become stronger than it was originally. Only in severe cases where the bone fractures completely and does not respond to rest and immobilisation, will surgery be required.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) to fix an appointment to check your stress fracture to your foot today.

Plantar Warts

What are warts, and what causes them?

A wart is a skin growth caused by some types of the virus called the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infects the top layer of skin, usually entering the body in an area of broken skin. The virus causes the top layer of skin to grow rapidly, forming a wart. Various types of this virus thrive in warm, damp environments such as showers, locker room floors, and swimming pool areas.

Warts can grow anywhere on the body, and there are different kinds. For example,common warts grow most often on the hands, but they can grow anywhere. Plantar warts grow on the soles of the feet.

You are most likely to develop a wart where you have broken skin, such as a cut, a hangnail, a closely bitten nail, or a scrape. Plantar warts are common in swimmers whose feet are not only damp and softened but are also scratched and broken by rough pool surfaces.

Plantar Warts
Plantar Warts

How are warts spread?

Warts are easily spread by direct contact with a human papillomavirus. You can infect yourself again by touching the wart and then touching another part of your body. You can infect another person by sharing towels, razors, or other personal items. After you’ve had contact with HPV, it can take many months of slow growth beneath the skin before you notice a wart.

It is unlikely that you will get a wart every time you come in contact with HPV. Some people are more likely to get warts than others.

What are the symptoms for warts?

Warts come in a wide range of shapes and sizes. A wart may be a bump with a rough surface, or it may be flat and smooth. Tiny blood vessels grow into the core of the wart to supply it with blood. In both common and plantar warts, these blood vessels may look like dark dots in the wart’s center.

Warts are usually painless. But a wart that grows in a spot where you put pressure, such as on a finger or on the bottom of the foot, can be painful.

How are warts diagnosed?

A doctor usually can tell if a skin growth is a wart just by looking at it. Your doctor may take a sample of the wart and look at it under a microscope (a skin biopsy). This may be done if it isn’t clear that the growth is a wart. It may also be done if a skin growth is darker than the skin surrounding it, is an irregular patch on the skin, bleeds, or is large and fast-growing.

How are warts treated?

Most warts don’t need treatment. But if you have warts that are painful or spreading, or if you are bothered by the way they look, your treatment choices include:

  • Using a home treatment such as salicylic acid or duct tape. You can get these without a prescription.
  • Putting a stronger medicine on the wart, or getting a shot of medicine in it.
  • Freezing the wart (cryotherapy).
  • Removing the wart with surgery.

Effective wart treatment will be removing it surgically. The goal of wart treatment is to destroy or remove the wart totally.

When To Call a Doctor

See your doctor if the wart is:

  • Painful.
  • Embarrassing.
  • Easily irritated.
  • Growing or spreading to other parts of your body or to other people.

Call (+65) 6471 2674 (24 Hour) Now to check and treat your warts today.