A meniscus tear is a common injury to the cartilage that stabilizes and cushions the knee joint. The type of the tear can determine whether your tear can be repaired. Radial tears sometimes can be repaired, depending on where they are located. Horizontal, flap, long-standing, and degenerative tears – those caused by years of wear and tear – generally cannot be repaired.
Your doctor will likely suggest the treatment that he or she thinks will work best for you based on the zone where the tear is, the pattern of the tear, and how big it is. Your age, your health, and your activity level may also affect your treatment options. In some cases, the surgeon makes the final decision during surgery, when he or she can see the how strong the meniscus is, where the tear is, and how big the tear is.
- If you have a small tear at the outer edge of the meniscus, you may want to try home treatment. These tears often heal with rest.
- If you have a moderate to large tear at the outer edge of the meniscus, you may want to think about surgery. These kinds of tears tend to heal well after surgery.
- If you have a tear that spreads into the inner two-thirds of the meniscus, your decision is harder. Surgery to repair these kinds of tears may not work.
- If you have a tear in the meniscus, repair surgery usually isn’t done, because the meniscus may not heal. But partial meniscectomy may be done if torn pieces of meniscus are causing pain and swelling.
Our surgeon uses arthroscopic surgery to repair the meniscus. The surgeon inserts a thin tube (arthroscope) containing a camera and a light through small incisions near the knee and is able to see inside the knee without making a large incision. Surgical instruments can be inserted through other small incisions. The surgeon repairs the meniscus using sutures (stitches).
Other knee injuries—most commonly to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)—may occur at the same time as a torn meniscus. In these cases, the treatment plan is altered. Typically, your orthopedist will repair your torn meniscus, if needed, at the same time ACL surgery is done. In this case, the ACL rehabilitation plan is followed.
What To Expect After Meniscus Repair
Your surgeon may recommend that you limit the motion before you resume to daily activities. Physical therapy may or may not be necessary after the surgery. But heavy stresses, such as running and squats, should be postponed for some months. You must follow your doctor’s rehabilitation (rehab) plan for optimum healing.
Why It Meniscus Repair Is Done
How your doctor treats a meniscus tear depends upon the size and location of the tear, your age, your health and activity level, and when the injury occurred. Treatment options include nonsurgical treatment with rest, ice, compression, elevation, and physical therapy and surgical repair. If the meniscus can be repaired successfully, saving the injured meniscus by doing a meniscal repair reduces the occurrence of knee-joint degeneration.
Small tears located at the outer edge of the meniscus often heal on their own. Larger tears located toward the center of the meniscus may not heal well, because blood supply to that area is poor. In a young person, surgery to repair the tear may be the first choice, because it may restore function.
What To Think About
If surgical meniscus repair is indicated, the procedure should be done as soon as possible after the injury. But if the tear is minor and you choose to put off a surgery to see if the meniscus tear heals on its own, a later repair may still heal the meniscus properly.
You may be able to prevent long-term complications such as osteoarthritis with successful surgical repair of your tear. Successful meniscus repair may save meniscal cartilage and reduce the stress put on the knee joint, thereby lowering the risk of osteoarthritis.