Brief Outline of Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture
An avulsion fracture occurs when a tendon or ligament pulls away from the bone at its attachment, pulling a piece of the bone away with it. This usually results from a forceful, twisting muscular contraction or a powerful hyperextension or hyperflexion of the knee. The injury is more prevalent in children than adults: in adults the tendons or ligaments tend to tear before the bone is affected, whereas the softer bones tend to become involved in children’s injuries.
Cause of Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture
Forceful twisting, extension, or flexion, causing extra stress on the tendon. Direct impact on the knee, causing forceful stretching of the biceps femoris tendon.
Signs and Symptoms of Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture
Pain at the back of the knee. Swelling and tenderness. Loss of hamstring strength and decreased ability to flex the knee.
Complications If Left Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture Unattended
When left untreated an avulsion fracture will lead to long-term disability in the hamstrings and knee joint. Incomplete or incorrect healing may result as well, leading to future injuries of the knee and other muscles around the joint.
Immediate Treatment for Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture
R.I.C.E. Immobilisation of the knee joint. Anti-inflammatory medicines. Seek immediate medical help.
Rehabilitation and Prevention for Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture
Rest for the injured knee and then strengthening the muscles and supporting ligaments will help rehabilitate and prevent future fractures. Gradual re-entry into full activity is important to prevent re-injuring the weakened area.
Long-term Prognosis and Surgery for Biceps Femoris Avulsion Fracture
With proper treatment most simple avulsion fractures will heal completely with no limitations. In rare cases surgery may be needed to repair the avulsed bone, especially in children when the avulsion involves a growth plate.